Atopic dermatitis is a chronic and recurrent skin disease characterized by severe itching, dry skin and rash. It is more common in childhood. The etiology is not clear at present. Genetic, environmental and emotional factors are known to play a role in the development of the disease. It is especially more common in people with hay fever and allergic asthma in themselves or in their family.
The clinical picture varies with age. While the face and the inner parts of the knees and elbows are often affected in infants and small children, the neck, hands, ankles, inner parts of the elbows and the back of the knees are affected in adults.
Several factors influence exacerbations of the disease. These include long and hot baths that dry the skin, scratching, soap or detergent use, infections, sudden temperature changes, stress, woolen clothes, animal hair, dust and pollen. Exacerbations can also be caused by various foods (eggs, peanuts, soybeans, milk, fish, wheat), especially in infants and children. Patients should therefore be made aware of the triggering factors.
The diagnosis of atopic dermatitis is easy. The skin findings are often sufficient for the diagnosis. However, skin biopsy can be performed to make the final diagnosis in widespread and suspect situations. Various topical and systemic treatments are recommended in the treatment, depending on the age of the patient and the severity of the atopic dermatitis. Phototherapy is also an important option. In addition, moisturizing the skin daily with odorless and colorless moisturizers should not be forgotten.